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 21 
 on: November 02, 2010, 05:49:15 AM 
Started by admin - Last post by Ian Gardner
Dear Roy,
I have just had advice from the editor of The History of Ceylon Tea about your enquiry re-posted, it would seem, from 2006.
Clogstoun is an unusual name and because of that I can say that I am pretty sure I have not encountered it in my travels through the annals of this history. There is an outside chance that he may have been mentioned in one or more of the old photographs which date back in the HOCT albums to the 1840s if my memory serves me correctly. There are not many with captions but who knows? . . . .. you may strike it lucky.
We now have to rely on old fellows like myself who started planting c.1950. Compare that with 1870!!
All the best,
Ian.

 22 
 on: November 01, 2010, 03:44:07 PM 
Started by admin - Last post by David Colin-Thomé (Editor)
Msg received from Roy Clogstoun as an addendum to his earlier posting:

Since then I have discovered that my great grandfather Cuthbert George Wilder Clogstoun first planted coffee at Castlemilk Estate in Gampola and then at Blackwater Estate in Nawalapitiya. Is there anyone who has any information on these estates.

 23 
 on: October 30, 2010, 06:29:41 AM 
Started by HOCT - Last post by Ian Gardner
Thank you Jonathan for your efforts here!

 24 
 on: October 30, 2010, 06:29:09 AM 
Started by HOCT - Last post by Ian Gardner
Thank you Jonathan for your efforts here!

 25 
 on: October 26, 2010, 05:41:31 AM 
Started by HOCT - Last post by HOCT
Regional Plantation Companies show higher productivity
20 October 2010

The Planters Association (PA) says Regional Plantation Companies (RPCs) show consistently high productivity in tea cultivation. In a press statement, the PA noted that based on national statistics, yields and re-planting rates are higher within the RPC sector than the small holdings sector in tea cultivation. This is despite a sharp increase in production costs due to wage increases and difficult weather conditions.

The Sri Lanka Tea Board statistical booklet 2009 shows a yield of 1,762 kgs per hectare, for high grown tea in 2009. A majority of land cultivated for high grown tea (86%) is under RPC control, with RPC tea plantations accounting for 35, 432 hectares, out of the 41,137 hectares, of high grown tea land in the country.

The land management of low grown tea cultivation on the other hand, is the opposite, with small holdings accounting for the majority share. Almost 87% of the low grown tea land area is under small holder management. However, according to the statistics of the Sri Lanka Tea Board for 2009, the yield from low grown tea was 1,576 kgs per hectare, which are lower then the high grown tea yield.

“The data on yields, from high grown and low grown tea cultivations, show that the yield is higher in RPC managed tea lands than in small holdings”, said Mr Roshan Rajadurai, Deputy Chairman of the PA.

However, the PA notes that tea cultivation in the low country has the potential for higher labour productivity than RPC managed estates in the up country.  Small holdings are cultivated as a family owned business venture. This results in small holding families themselves doing some of the work, which keeps labour costs low and also allows for greater interest in gaining higher yields.  Labour, when hired from outside, is paid on the number of kilos of tea plucked by the worker. Since the workers do not get a fixed minimum daily wage, or other benefits such as EPF and ETF, they work harder to maximise their incomes. The PA notes that this combination of hired labour and family ownership should help increase productivity in the low grown tea sector.

 “Low grown tea lands should show higher productivity because they work their own fields. When they hire outside workers, these workers are not paid other benefits. They are paid strictly on how many kilos they pluck. So the workers also work harder to improve their incomes. This is not the case with workers in RPC estates. In RPCs workers are paid a minimum wage and have many other attendant benefits, irrespective of their level of productivity. This situation in low grown areas should also contribute towards higher yields, than from RPCs,” said Mr Rajadurai.

Land productivity is also affected by weather patterns, say the PA. Lowlands are generally seen to have more conducive weather all year round, than high grown tea plantations.

“Low grown areas have better distributed rainfall and better climatic conditions for crop growth throughout the year than lands in high elevation. This is seen in most countries. So again the yield should be higher from the low grown estates compared to the highlands,” said Mr Rajadurai.

More replanting
The PA says replanting rates among RPCs is also higher than among the small holdings, contrary to popular belief. According to statistics from the Ministry of Plantation Industries, from 1995, after privatisation of estates, up to 2008, tea small holdings replanted 6%, or 8,084 hectares, out of their land area. The RPCs on the other hand, replanted 9%, or 7,406 hectares, of tea holdings under their management during the same period. New planting rates on the other hand, are higher in the tea small holding sector with 3,137 hectares of new planting compared to 68 hectares of new planting in RPC tea lands.

“Replanting is highly capital and labour intensive. You need around 4,000 workers to replant one hectare of tea land, for the six years from uprooting to bearing stage.  In addition to the cost of hiring labour, there is also difficulty in sourcing so much labour for replanting, because the estates must also meet the daily labour requirement for important revenue generation activities such as plucking and other important field up keep and processing activities.  The cost of replanting is approximately Rs 2.5 million for a hectare, following the guidelines set by the Tea Research Institute,” said Mr Rajadurai.

The PA maintains that the RPCs are committed towards increasing replanting levels and improving productivity of their estates despite the many drawbacks related to agronomic factors including land suitability and adequacy of recommended planting materials, shortage of labour, adverse impact on National production and quality of Ceylon Tea and most importantly, financial constraints faced by them.

Source: DailyMirror.lk http://www.dailymirror.lk/print/index.php/business/127-local/24732.html

 26 
 on: October 26, 2010, 05:40:17 AM 
Started by HOCT - Last post by HOCT
Sri Lanka's tea industry a model to the world - Athukorala
16 October 2010

At the 2010 Global Tea and Coffee Convention staged in the iconic World Cup horse racing venue of the Jumeirah  Meydan  in Dubai, one of Sri Lanka's sought business speakers Rohantha Athukorala, who holds multiple director positions in the private and public sector, voiced that Sri Lanka's tea industry - just like any other agricultural crop - had to manage many variables, some within the control of the industry whilst some totally outside the realm of authority, but had become a model tea industry to the world with strong industry leadership.

The speaker said that Sri Lanka's tea industry was a lesson to the world on the unique Private-Public-People (PPP) approach where 300 high quality kilograms of tea are produced, commanding a premium price that no other auction has been able to attract.

An effective worldwide distribution network makes Pure Ceylon Tea available to around 130 countries globally, catering to over half a billion people annually, a feat that no other country can boast of, said Athukorala, to a packed audience across the value chain from Rwanda, Kenya, Sri Lanka, India, Vietnam, Indonesia and China.

He then went on to say that the certification of Ceylon Tea, being the only country to be globally certified as being ozone friendly, was an indication of the strong commitment of the Sri Lankan tea industry to global warming, which pegs the country as the tea nation of the world.

Athukorala, who chairs the value added Tea Advisory Committee of the Ministry of Trade and Commerce in Sri Lanka, addressing the global delegates on the current state of the tea industry and future trends globally, commented that tea in general was earning a perception of being a smart and natural health drink and had the potential to increase its global share of throat from the current 27 to 30 billion dollars, provided there was no issue on the supply chain.

He pointed out that excluding China's production last year, the global market was at a shortfall of around 30 million kilograms of tea and this needed to be managed if the tea industry was to be a 30 billion industry globally.

This can only be done if proper agricultural practices are followed around the world with the development of new products globally, he said, adding that the latest was green tea ice cream, which the world had seen in the Japanese market, which was an indication of the closeness to consumers that the industry was striving to achieve.

However, he cautioned the industry of the new trend seen where international supermarket and hypermarket chains are entering emerging markets  targeting the  middle to lower socio economic consumer groups who are in fact upgrading their lifestyle from the general trade to hypermarkets, whereby the retailer becomes a key decision maker in the purchase decision. This is creating a power shift and bargaining power which brand owners must be cognisant of, said Athukorala.

The challenge in this new development is that allocation of shelf space will be based on off take, share of voice on media, share of promotions and credit terms, stock turnover which is a huge shift from traditional relationships that have been practiced over the years, commented Athukorala - which means a new business model needs to be introduced with a strong key account management organisation structure.

A brand owner of today must be ready for a higher entry cost such as paying for shelf space, higher trade margins and lower marketing margins where consumers have a general affinity to retailer - at the expense of the brand owner, said Athukorala, being a brand marketer by profession.

On a broader sense, the speaker asserted that many scientists were researching the various health benefits of tea, including reducing the risks of cancer, whilst specialty teas are a quickly expanding subset of global tea consumption and in fact had outpaced regular tea in countries like Canada whilst in the United States approximately 85% of tea was consumed as iced tea with the competitor being sodas and water; an interesting development on the concept of share of throat, he asserted.

The speaker said that the recessionary and inflationary pressures had led consumers to seek greater value for money but even with the global economic downturn the demand for tea continued, which was a healthy sign given that it had "become a habit that one cannot forego for financial reasons".

"This is the power of tea in the world stage and it is up to the brand marketers to make it a 30 billion dollar industry within the next two years," he added.

Globally tea prices have surged as consumption growth has outpaced the increase in production by 3.4%. In some developing markets like Russia, demand has shifted from more fashionable and expensive drinks to traditional, lower-quality tea that has put pressure to develop new business models like the use of multi origin teas.

On the other hand, in developed countries, gourmet tea has been an "affordable luxury" and sales have remained strong. The 2,600 specialty tearooms in the US are growing; but soft drink consumption is still huge despite some resistance due to association with obesity and diabetes resulting in a decline in usage, said Athukorala.

Sharing some thoughts on the broader beverage market, he said water was moving to a new domain, becoming flavoured and fortified with vitamins, whilst sports drinks are marketed to athletes as energy drinks with massive amounts of sugar and caffeine along with guarana, ginseng and taurine. Then, there are drinks as "energy shots" offering concentrated caffeine and other chemicals to provide instant boosts of energy, which are the new forms of competition with which the world of tea is challenged.

Some of the other speakers featured at this year's conference were Tracy Allen, the CEO of Brewed Behaviour USA, who spoke on 'Unique Value Propositions in the Tea and Coffee Industry,' coffee expert Shawn Hamilton and Anthony Butera - the Director-General of the Rwandan Tea Authority - who gave some finer tips of the Rwandan experience on tea tasting; whilst Koren Thurnbern, the Regional Director Kempinsi Hotels for Middle East and Africa, highlighted on building a business and holding on to people.

Manish Sharma, Director Promotions of the Tea Board of India in UAE, spoke on Indian tea and what sets it apart globally. The conference attracted over 500 delegates from across the world to the iconic World Cup horse racing venue, the Meydan, which is built in the shape of a falcon.

Source: DailyMirror.lk http://www.dailymirror.lk/print/index.php/business/127-local/24380.html

 27 
 on: October 26, 2010, 05:37:55 AM 
Started by HOCT - Last post by HOCT
UK cardiac jobs: Heart disease cut by two cups of tea a day
14 October 2010

Those looking for UK cardiac jobs have been told of new research which showed that drinking two cups of tea a day can cut heart disease.

Researchers from the School of Medicine and Pharmacology at the University of Western Australia found that green or black versions of the beverage increases the body's intake of health, boosting flavonoids and cutting the danger of heart problems by 11 per cent.

One cup of tea contains 150-200mg of flavonoids, meaning that drinking two cuppas a day is equivalent to eating five portions of vegetables and two apples.

"This new review presents yet more evidence that consumption of tea decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease," said Dr Catherine Hood of the Tea Advisory Panel.

Vera Pinneck, writing for Lonad.com, recently said that green tea has many benefits, having been drunk by the Asian population for at least a thousand years, those looking for UK cardiac jobs have been told.

Source: Mediplacements.com http://www.mediplacements.com/article-800116456-uk_cardiac_jobs%3A_heart_disease.html

 28 
 on: October 26, 2010, 05:35:19 AM 
Started by HOCT - Last post by HOCT
Tea and coffee may reduce brain tumor risk: EPIC Study
By Nathan Gray
19 October 2010


Daily intakes of more than 100 ml of tea or coffee may significantly reduce the risk of certain brain tumors, according to new research published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

The study is based on data from over half a million people in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, and finds that people consuming over 100 ml of tea, coffee, or both, per day are at significantly lower risk of glioblastoma tumours (glioma) than those consuming less than 100 ml per day.

“In this large cohort study, we observed an inverse association between total coffee and tea consumption and risk of glioma,” wrote the researchers, led by Dr. Dominique S Michaud from the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at Imperial College, London.

Poor prognosis
According to the American Brain Tumor Association, glioma's are tumors that start in the supportive tissue brain. The exact causes of gliomas are not known, however the prognosis for people once diagnosed with the type of tumour is usually very poor.

A recent US study found total coffee and tea consumption was inversely associated with risk of glioma, whilst experimental studies have shown caffeine can slow the invasive growth of glioblastoma tumours.

However very few large scale epidemiologic studies have measured the association between coffee, tea, or caffeinated beverages and glioma risk. The authors noted that the results of these studies “have been inconsistent”.

“Given the limited evidence suggesting that coffee and tea intake may reduce the risk of glioma, more studies are needed to address this hypothesis,” stated the researchers.

In the new study, the researchers examined the relation between coffee and tea intake and risk of glioma and meningioma.

A significant inverse association was observed for glioma risk when consuming more than 100 ml coffee and tea per day, compared consuming less than 100 ml per day.

However, the researchers observed no association between coffee, tea, or combined coffee and tea consumption and risk of either type of brain tumor when looking at data based on country-specific intakes.

No association was reported for meningioma risk with the same intake values for coffee and tea intake combined, or when a higher cutoff of 200 ml per day was used.

Potential mechanisms
“Given that we did not observe an association between coffee and tea consumption and meningioma risk, it is possible that the effect of coffee, if causal, is acting late in the process of carcinogenesis by preventing tumor growth,” suggested the researchers.

Another potential mechanism that may be implicated in the observed effects, involves the DNA repair protein MGMT. Higher activation of MGMT is believed to have a protective effect against development of several types of cancer, including colon cancer and glioma.

Coffee compounds kahweol and cafestol have been reported to increase MGMT activity in rats, whilst certain tea polyphenols are known to reactivate genes in cancer cells – including MGMT.

“These findings, if further replicated in other studies, may provide new avenues of research on gliomas,” they added.

Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Published online ahead of print, doi:

“Coffee and tea intake and risk of brain tumors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study”

Authors: D.S Michaud, V. Gallo, B. Schlehofer, A. Tjønneland, A. Olsen, K. Overvad, et al.

Source: NutraIngredients-usa.com http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Research/Tea-and-coffee-may-reduce-brain-tumor-risk-EPIC-Study

 29 
 on: October 26, 2010, 05:33:01 AM 
Started by HOCT - Last post by HOCT
More Studies on Tea Health Benefits Backed
By Gabriel s. Mabutas
21October 2010


MANILA, Philippines – The Food and Nutrition Research Institute Thursday recommended further studies on the health benefits of tea amid conflicting research as to whether it could indeed reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and stroke, as well as reduce weight with its anti-oxidant properties which are helpful in cardiovascular health.

This, even as it admitted that tea is the main source of flavonoids in the diet, which is also present in apples, grapes, wines and cocoas. Most of the health benefits of tea are attributed to flavonoids.

All true teas, according to the institute, come from the same plant, Camellia sinensis, ranging from green, oolong, white, black, rooibos tea, red tea and herbal tea infusions.

“The main difference is in the way the tea leaves are processed but all tea brews are full of natural goodness and health benefits,” it added.

Citing the lecture delivered by Dr. Jan Rycroft in a seminar on the “Bioactive Components of Tea and their Health Benefits” FNRI noted that an average 200 milliliter (mL) cup of green tea contains 120 milligrams (mg) of flavonoids while an average 300 mL cup of black tea contains 130mg.

Rycroft, category nutritionist of Unilever, presented different studies on the relationships of tea and flavonoids to different nutritional and health factors, such as antioxidant properties which are helpful in cardiovascular health, weight management and mental performance.

A dietary antioxidant is a substance in foods that significantly decreases the adverse effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on the normal physiological function in humans.

In an experiment presented by Dr. Rycroft regarding flavonoids as antioxidants, however, results showed that bioavailability is low and flavonoids are modified upon absorption without indications of reduced damage in vivo.

Flavonoids have no proof for protection against free radical damage in the cells.

This study was supported by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Diabetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies in 2010, which reported that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of tea and the protection of body cells and molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage.

“According to various studies on cardiovascular health though, tea, in general, is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, specifically lowering the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and ischemic heart disease,” the FNRI noted.

They claimed, it said, that consumption of two to three cups of black or green tea per day improves blood vessel function.

“Tea consumption can help in weight management program, according to a number of Asian studies that found a reduction of visceral fat after consumption of high catechin green tea for 12 weeks. It was also shown that high catechin green tea increases fat oxidation,” the FNRI said.

L-theanine, on the other hand, is an amino acid naturally exclusive from tea that is responsible for the production of alpha waves in the brain which has a calming effect on the body and gives the balance of deep relaxation and mental alertness, according to Dr. Edgardo Tolentino of the Makati Medical Center.

A typical 200mL serving of black tea contains 4.5 – 22.5mg of L-theanine.

Source: Mb.com.ph http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/283439/more-studies-tea-health-benefits-backed

 30 
 on: October 12, 2010, 06:26:52 AM 
Started by Ian Gardner - Last post by Ian Gardner
Firstly, my thanks to Jonathan for the photographs. Secondly, it is a great pleasure to see a bungalow and garden so well maintained and obviously tastefully and knowledgeably planted. Someone knows his or her horticulture!!
I was particularly taken by the similarity of the plant species growing in the garden: they are the same as grow well where I am, some 1300ft [c.390m] above sea level only a few kilometres from the Eastern seaboard of Australia. The climate in both places is almost identical!

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